14 Appropriate approval is not necessarily given by the research subjects themselves. Approval may be required from a parent or legal guardian who must consent, and the actual participant may be required to assent in some cases. This includes legal guardians for minors and adults who are unable to give consent. In animal studies, statisticians should enquire as to proper forms of owner or institutional consent for animals that are part of a research project. In all cases, avoid or minimize the use of deception. Where it is necessary and provides significant knowledge—as in some psychological, sociological, and other research—ensure prior independent ethical review of the protocol and continued monitoring of the research. Where full disclosure of study parameters to subjects or other investigators is not advisable, as in some randomized clinical trials, generally inform them of the nature of the information withheld and the reason for withholding it. As with deception, ensure independent ethical review of the protocol and continued monitoring of the research.